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APA 7th Edition Citation Guide

Learn how to format essays and cite your sources using APA 7th Edition Guidelines.

E-mails and Other Non-Retrievable Communications

Note: E-mails, instant messages, unpublished personal interviews, conversations, lectures and any other communication that is not available publicly should be cited as personal communications.  Personal communications only require an in-text citation.  They do not need an entry on the References page. 

References Page Format In-Text Citation

Personal Communications Do Not Need References Page Entries


(A. A. Author, Personal communication, Month Day, Year)


(A. Bezdicek, Personal communication, December 5, 2019)