Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA 7th Edition Citation Guide

Learn how to format essays and cite your sources using APA 7th Edition Guidelines.

E-mails and Other Non-Retrievable Communications

Note: E-mails, instant messages, unpublished personal interviews, conversations, lectures and any other communication that is not available publicly should be cited as personal communications.  Personal communications only require an in-text citation.  They do not need an entry on the References page. 

References Page Format In-Text Citation

Personal Communications Do Not Need References Page Entries

Format: 

(A. A. Author, Personal communication, Month Day, Year)

Example:

(A. Bezdicek, Personal communication, December 5, 2019)