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APA 7th Edition Citation Guide

Learn how to format essays and cite your sources using APA 7th Edition Guidelines.

What Are Paraphrase and Summary?

Paraphrase and Summary:

  • Incorporate a portion of the source into your essay by conveying its meaning in your own words.
  • Paraphrase aims to replicate all of the ideas of the source passage, while summary aims to express only its main point(s).
  • Are introduced by a signal phrase, incorporating the source passage into the flow of the essay.  Typically, the signal phrase will indicate to the reader something about the source of the paraphrase.
  • End with a citation indicating the author of the source and, in APA style, the year it was published.

When do I use Paraphrase and Summary?
 

  • When you want to call attention to what a source says, but how it says it is not important.
  • When you only want to convey a sources main idea in a short amount of time.
  • Use paraphrase and summary frequently.  APA is designed for the social and health sciences, which typically have less need for direct quotation than the humanities.  

How Do I Paraphrase/Summarize a Source?
 

  • Read and understand the source.
  • Identify the main points and supporting information of the portions you want to paraphrase/summarize.
  • Re-write those portions in your own words, being careful not to use similar phrasing of sentence structure. 
  • Compare with the original and ask yourself:
    • Does it properly convey the meaning of the original? 
    • Are the sentence structure and phrasing too similar?

Paraphrase (Narrative Citation)

Source:

The struggle to fill nursing positions is different from the effort to add to the physician workforce. One main reason: there are not enough faculty to teach incoming nursing students. Either faculty are leaving due to retirement -- like their counterparts in health-care settings, they too are aging – or they’re gaining higher salaries elsewhere in practice settings other than teaching.

Moore, M. (2015, June 5). The nursing shortage and the doctor shortage are two very different things. The Washington Post.  https://www.washingtonpost.com

Paraphrase:

Summary (Parenthetical Citation)

Source:

The struggle to fill nursing positions is different from the effort to add to the physician workforce. One main reason: there are not enough faculty to teach incoming nursing students. Either faculty are leaving due to retirement -- like their counterparts in health-care settings, they too are aging – or they’re gaining higher salaries elsewhere in practice settings other than teaching.

Moore, M. (2015, June 5). The nursing shortage and the doctor shortage are two very different things. The Washington Post.  https://www.washingtonpost.com

Summary: